Nixons decision was widely publicized and documents revealing the reasons behind it are, in the main, available to the public in the national archives, the. Kgb defectors cold war secrets revealed at last this article is more than 5 years old vasili mitrokhins demand granted 20 years on as 2,000 pages of notes he made from kgb archives. Weapon caliber in service variants photo country rmb93. By 1947, more than a dozen designs were tested before the soviet army finally adopted the nowfamous ak47 rifle. Simp son, one of the bzlletins founders, says that a 15. The soviet biological weapons program is an immense work, and one whose very thoroughnesswhen conflicting narratives are available, both are offeredcan be exhausting. The soviet union was the primary developer and producer of weapons for the warsaw pact side of the cold war arms race against nato. During the cold war, the soviet union valued nuclear weapons for both their political.
Following political instability builtup in europe from 1930, germany, which aimed to. The united states and the soviet union were the leading actors. The soviet union began a biological weapons program in the 1920s. Soviet designers began developing assault rifles as early as 1944. Toxic archipelago examines another aspect of the ussrs weapons of mass destruction legacy, the proliferation problems that stem from the former soviet chemical and biological weapons complexes.
Subcategories this category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total. At that very time, however, the soviet union was embarking on a massive expansion of its offensive biological weapons program, which began i. Topsecret history of kgb, 1977, chapters 112 and appendix. The em12b ak shotgun from io incroyal tiger imports. Medvedev is the author of a number of standard works on science in the soviet union. It was created as a replacement for the dp machine gun chambered for the 7. It was with this possibility in mindthat the united states. German soldiers became ill with the rare pulmonary form of tularemia, which may indicate the use of an aerosol biological weapon the ordinary. Brief history of the soviet biological weapons bw program.
It has been said that the history of nuclear weapons is at once fascinating and horrifying. The alert came at a time of high tension between the two countries, due in part to the u. Russian officials claim today that the ussr never possessed an offensive biological weapons program. The antiplague system and the soviet biological warfare program.
Late 1990s used by russian armed forces russia ks23. Blechman ong relegated to the fringes of policy discussions, nuclear disarmament has moved to center stage in the past few years. Nonetheless, soviet forces possessed too few theaterlevel nuclear weapons to fulfil warplan requirements until the mid1980s. Conventional arms transfers during the soviet period. Soviet chemical weapon developments only to indicate the full scope of. Color very weak, looks like black and white on color stock. Russian disinformation campaigns re biological weapons in the. Russias tactical nuclear weapons the web site cannot be found. An excellent one stop reference book if youre looking to game 1980s cold war soviets.
List of soviet union military equipment of world war ii. Aug 21, 2015 the previously top secret files show how a mole in britains nuclear weapons research programme was given instructions by his soviet handlers which read like details from a john le. In 1972, the united states, the soviet union and other nations signed the biological and toxin weapons convention that was supposed to ban biological weapons. The soviet bw program began in the 1920s at the leningrad military academy under the control of the state security apparatus, known as the gpu. During the events of 40s50s, the soviet union was threatened by mysterious alien spaceships destroying military installations. A great encapsulated overview of soviet weapons systems and strategytactics for the period covers much of the material in the official dia pamphlets on soviet motorrifle and tank companiesbatallionsregiments etc. In addition, this collection is a continuation of previous releases on the warsaw pact forces available at cia analysis of warsaw pact forces and soviet and warsaw pact military journals and adds 82 newly released documents ranging from translation of.
When the biological and toxin weapons convention bwc of 1972 went into force in 1975, the issue became one of whether or not the soviets were in compliance. Soviet chemical weapons threat dst1620f05185 this is a department of defense intelligence document prepared by the directorate for scientific and technical intelligence of. Beginning of a dialog window, including tabbed navigation to register an account or sign in to an existing account. The horror of a nuclear holocaust is universally acknowledged. Incor porating refinements in a number of significant areas, these newer missiles, coupled with the older ones, provide the soviet union with an effective weapons mix. Covers soviet army armor and weapons during maneuvers. The vertical proliferation in the former soviet union led to the emergence of two unintended policy consequences. The soviet biological weapons program and its legacy in today. The previously top secret files show how a mole in britains nuclear weapons research programme was given instructions by his soviet handlers which read like details from a john le. Opponents of soviet weapon exports identified and exaggerated the shortcomings of weapons used in military con flicts, thus reducing their competitive strength. The soviet biological weapons program and its legacy in. Marburg virus and ebola virus, became part of that program in the early 1970s, but. The general staff maintained plans to invade western europe whose massive scale was only made publicly available after german researchers gained access to national peoples army files following the dissolution of the.
China was neither emboldened nor more cautious because of its rudimentary nuclear capability. But for those seeking to understand the soviet unions complicated relationship with biological weapons, perhaps with an eye toward discerning the russian federations. Soviet biological warfare threat the soviet biological warfare capability the soviet offensive bw program has been monitored by the u. In addition, earlier in the month the soviet union shot down a korean airlines passenger plane that strayed into its. Annexe b provides the text of selected treaties and other documents. Nuclear weapon deployments in the former soviet union, 5 as of early 199 1 locations of active strategic forces in the fsu, as of late 1994 strategic nuclear weapons of the former soviet union outside russia, as of late 1994 russian operational strategic nuclear forces, as of late 1994 3. The continuing deterioration of the nonproliferation regime, the sudden emergence of north korea as a nuclearweapon state and of iran as a potential weapon state, concerns about the stability. The following is a list of soviet military equipment of world war ii which includes artillery, vehicles and vessels. Documents related to the soviet biological warfare bw program were. The soviet union maintained the largest known offensive biological weapons program to date. It is the weapon that first springs to mind when one thinks about russianmade small arms. While the immediate reason for the meeting was the crisis in the middle east, the u.
Soviet us sipri stockholm international peace research institute. This is an essential, verifiable first step toward lessening the risk of nuclear war and reducing the nuclear arsenals. During world war ii, joseph stalin was forced to move his biological warfare bw operations out of the path of advancing german forces and may have used tularemia against german troops in 1942 near stalingrad by 1960, numerous bw research facilities existed throughout the soviet union. Weapons convention the spelling and the order in which presented are as in the original documents. University of california press, 1990, by william a. Between 1940 and 1950, us newspapers reported countless flying saucers, men in black, alien contacts of 4th kind. The soviet biological weapons program and its legacy in todays.
Amy e smithson, vil s mirzayanov, roland lajoie, michael krepon keywords. Today, the united states and the soviet union possess 50,000 nuclear weapons. The history of the soviet biological weapons program. Rearrange individual pages or entire files in the desired order. This occurred despite the fact that the ussr was a signatory to the 1925 geneva convention, which banned both chemical and biological weapons. Pdf marburg and ebola virus research in the soviet. The soviets moved quickly in the development of iowpower nucle ar. Thus, in contrast to the longheld view that nuclear weapons and the possibility of escalation. The soviet government and the central committee of the cpsu were misled. Former soviet biological weapons facilities in kazakhstan. The soviet union establishcd nuclear pawer for space applications. Media in category army weapons of the soviet union the following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. In fact, the soviet government spent billions of rubles and hard currency to fund a hugely. Kazakhstan which were illprepared to protect weapons grade material from potential smugglers as a result of horizontal proliferation nuclear weapons and the environment, 2009.
Salt i, ii, iii strategic arms limitation treaty sovietus sipri stockholm international peace research institute slbm submarinelaunched ballistic missile sort strategic offensive reductions treaty. Pdf russian officials claim today that the ussr never possessed an offensive biological weapons program. Introduction during the cold war the main feature of international relations was an active confrontation between two opposing social and economic systems. Kazakhstan which were illprepared to protect weaponsgrade material from potential smugglers as a result of horizontal proliferation nuclear weapons and the environment, 2009. Why the arms race doesnt matterand what does berkeley. At the same time, however, the ussrs bloated defence sector is one of the factors that provoked the collapse of the soviet economy, the political system, and ultimately the soviet state itself. World war ii was the deadliest war in history which started in 1939 and ended in 1945. On the subject of nuclear affairs, he has also published nuclear disaster in the urals 1979 and the legacy of chernobyl 1990. Conventional arms transfers during the soviet period yuriy kirshin i. Kgb defectors cold war secrets revealed at last this article is more than 5 years old vasili mitrokhins demand granted 20 years on.
Stalin and the the beginning of the uranium problem atomic. Military aid to the soviet union will come as a surpriseand perhaps as an unwelcome shockto almost all readers. Soviet ground force weapons and armored vehicles sr ih 693 keywords. Negative and positive control of nuclear weapons 11. Conceived at the dawn of the cold war, the clock was designed with a 15minute range. Johnson and soviet premier alexei kosygin took place in glassboro, new jersey, in the immediate aftermath of the sixday war between u. Never before has the board of directors moved the minute hand so far at one time. The soviet biological weapons program the soviet unions firstgeneration biological warfare program, 19261972 russian armies suffered heavy losses from disease during all three of the major conflicts they were involved in at the beginning of the 20 th century. The spread in the press of information about the use by the americans of bacteriological weapons in korea was based on false information. It is a first attempt to penetrate what may ultimately turn out to be one of the most tragic. Soviet chemical weapons threat dst1620f05185 this is a department of defense intelligence document prepared by the directorate for scientific and technical intelligence of the defense intelligence agency. After the demise of the former soviet union, horizontal. Secret files reveal techniques of cold war soviet spies.
It is a first attempt to penetrate what may ultimately turn out to be one of the most tragic stories in the 200year history of the american republic. This collection of documents, spanning three decades from the 1960s to the 1980s, focus on cias collection and analysis of the soviet navy. Cold war nuclear target lists declassified for first time. The soviet luminaries of science were assisted by a group of german physicists taken to the soviet union after germanys surrender14 as well as by the soviet military intelligence. List of modern russian small arms and light weapons.465 1237 78 272 887 1302 1501 1006 462 1207 1384 923 686 1077 198 629 707 949 1438 642 703 1411 519 321 290 672 1256 1256 861 1099 713